Referral to treatment can be a complex process involving coordination across different types of services and is recommended when patients meet the diagnostic criteria for substance dependence or other mental illnesses as defined by the DSM-IV.

Referral requires the primary care system to establish new and complex linkages with the traditional specialty care system to connect clients who score in the problematic range to recognized, evidence-based treatment.

Although only 3% to 4% of screened patients in primary care settings typically need to be referred, the absence of a proper treatment referral will prevent the patient from accessing appropriate and timely care that can impact other psycho-social and medical issues.


Establishing Referral Process
Drug Abuse and Dependence
Barriers to Change
Motivational Interviewing
Consideration for Referral
Referral Challenges
Population Specific Referrals
Treatment (TXP)
Treatment Locations
Treatment Effectiveness
45:03 Question Session
Treatment Referrals
Treatment Providers
Levels of Care: Outpatient, Inpatient, Residential Services
1:05:49 Question Session
Medication-Assisted Treatment
Integrated Dual Diagnosis
Principles of Drug Treatment
Components of Comprehensive Drug Addiction
Training Resources


Geneva Sanford, MSW, LSW, LICDC, has primarily worked in formalized treatment programs prior to joining Grant’s Trauma Program in October, 2007. She is a member of the Prescription Drug Abuse Action Group under the Ohio Department of Health where she chairs the Education of Health Care Providers committee.

Additional Resources